stdlib_hash_32bit
and stdlib_hash_64bit
modulesThe comparison of lexical entities or other objects for equality can be computationally expensive. This cost is often reduced by computing a near unique integer value, termed a hash code, from the structure of the object using a procedure termed a hash function. Equality of hash codes is a necessary, but not sufficient, condition for the original objects to be equal. As integer comparisons are very efficient, performing an initial comparison of hash codes and then performing a detailed comparison only if the hash codes are equal can improve performance. The hash codes, in turn, can be mapped to a smaller set of integers, that can be used as an index, termed a hash index, to a rank-1 array, often termed a hash table. This mapping will be known as a scalar hash. The use of a hash table reduces the number of hash codes that need to be compared, further improving performance. A hash function can also be used to generate a checksum to verify that data has not changed. The Fortran Standard Library therefore provides procedures to compute hash codes and scalar hashes. This document only discusses the hash codes and scalar hashes in the library.
The Fortran Standard Library is distributed under the MIT License.
However components of the library may be based on code released under a
different license. In particular, the hash codes are often based
on algorithms considered as public domain (Fibonacci Hash
, Universal
Multiplicative Hash)
or released under a different license than the
MIT license (FNV-1 Hash
, FNV-1A Hash
, nmhash32
, nmhash32x
,
waterhash
, pengyhash
and SpookyHash
)
The licensing status of the algorithms are discussed below.
fibonacci_hash
is a scalar hash. It is an implementation in Fortran
2008 and signed two's complement integers of the Fibonacci Hash
described in D. E. Knuth, "The Art of
Computer Programming, Second Edition, Volume 3, Sorting and
Searching", Addison-Wesley, Upper Saddle River, NJ,
pp. 517-518, 1998. The algorithms in that source are considered public
domain, and its use is unrestricted.
universal_mult_hash
is a scalar hash. It is an implementation in
Fortran 2008 and signed two's complement integers of the
universal multiplicative hash algorithm of M. Dietzfelbinger,
T. Hagerup, J. Katajainen, and M. Penttonen, "A Reliable Randomized
Algorithm for the Closest-Pair Problem," J. Algorithms, Vol. 25,
No. 1, Oct. 1997, pp. 19-51. Because of its publication in the Journal
of Algorithms, the universal multiplicative hash algorithm is public
domain.
fnv_1_hash
and fnv_1a_hash
are translations to Fortran 2008 and
signed two's complement integers of the
FNV-1
and FNV-1a
hash functions of Glenn Fowler, Landon Curt Noll,
and Phong Vo, that has been released into the public
domain. Permission has been granted, by Landon Curt Noll, for the use
of these algorithms in the Fortran Standard Library. A description of
these functions is available at
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fowler–Noll–Vo_hash_function.
These functions have been modified from their normal forms to also
encode the structure size in the output hash.
Similarly spooky_hash
and associated procedures are translations to
Fortran 2008 and signed two's complement integers of the unsigned 64
bit version 2 SpookyHash
functions of Bob
Jenkins https://burtleburtle.net/bob/hash/spooky.html to signed 64
bit operations. Version 2 was chosen over version 1 as it has better
performance and fewer bad seeds
Bob Jenkins has also put this code in the public
domain and has given permission to treat this code as public domain in
the USA, provided the code can be used under other licenses and he is
given appropriate credit.
nmhash32
and nmhash32x
are translations to Fortran 2008 and signed
two's complement integers of the unsigned 32-bit
hashes of James Z. M. Gao's nmhash32
and nmhash32x
version of 0.2,
https://github.com/gzm55/hash-garage/blob/a8913138bdb3b7539c202edee30a7f0794bbd835/nmhash.h
James Z. M. Gao has released his code under the BSD 2 Clause
License. The BSD 2-Clause license is as follows:
BSD 2-Clause License
Copyright (c) 2021, James Z.M. Gao
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice,
this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the documentation
and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS"
AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF
SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS
INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN
CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
water_hash
is a translation to Fortran 2008 and signed two's
complement integers of the waterhash
algorithm
of Tommy Ettinger. This algorithm is inspired by the Wy Hash of
Wang Yi. Tommy Ettinger's original C++ code, waterhash.h
,
is available at URL: https://github.com/tommyettinger/waterhash under
the unlicense
,
https://github.com/tommyettinger/waterhash/blob/master/LICENSE.
The unlicense
reads as follows:
This is free and unencumbered software released into the public domain.
Anyone is free to copy, modify, publish, use, compile, sell, or
distribute this software, either in source code form or as a compiled
binary, for any purpose, commercial or non-commercial, and by any
means.
In jurisdictions that recognize copyright laws, the author or authors
of this software dedicate any and all copyright interest in the
software to the public domain. We make this dedication for the benefit
of the public at large and to the detriment of our heirs and
successors. We intend this dedication to be an overt act of
relinquishment in perpetuity of all present and future rights to this
software under copyright law.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR
OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE,
ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR
OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.
For more information, please refer to <http://unlicense.org>
pengy_hash
is a translation to Fortran 2008 and signed two's
complement arithmetic of the pengyhash
algorithm of Alberto Fajardo,
copyright 2020. Alberto Fajardo's original C code, pengyhash.c
, is
available at the URL:
https://github.com/tinypeng/pengyhash/blob/master/pengyhash.c
under the BSD 2-Clause License:
https://github.com/tinypeng/pengyhash/blob/master/LICENSE
The BSD 2-Clause license is as follows:
BSD 2-Clause License
pengyhash
Copyright (c) 2020 Alberto Fajardo
All rights reserved.
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
with the distribution.
THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND
CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR CONTRIBUTORS
BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON
ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR
TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF
THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE.
There are a few words used in this document that may not be familiar to readers of this document:
Key - a value to be used to find entries in a hash table typically using its hashed value for the initial search;
Salt - see seed, and;
Seed - an additional argument to a hash function that changes its output making some attacks impractical.
The Standard Library provides two modules implementing hash
functions and scalar hashes.
The stdlib_hash_32bit
module provides procedures to
compute 32-bit integer hash codes and a scalar hash.
The hash codes can be used for tables of up to 2**30
entries, and
for keys with a few hundred elements, but performance has only been
tested for tables up to 2**16
entries and performance may degrade
for larger numbers of entries.
The stdlib_hash_64bit
module provides hash procedures to
compute 64-bit integer hash codes and a scalar hash.
The hash codes can, in principle, be used for tables of up to 2**62
entries, and for keys with a few thousand elements, but testing of
performance has only been been for tables up to 2**16
elements and
performance may degrade for larger numbers of entries.
While one of the codes in stdlib_hash_64bit
,
SPOOKY_HASH
, can also be used to calculate 128 bit hash codes, none
of the current codes can be used to calculate 256 bit hash codes.
Such larger hash codes are useful for larger hash tables and keys, and
for checksums.
Such larger keys and tables are little used, if used at all, in
current
Fortran codes, but the larger hash codes may be added to the library
if there is a demand for them.
Hash functions are often divided into two categories "cryptographic" and "non-cryptographic". Cryptographic hash functions produce codes that are infeasible to reverse without additional information beyond the identity of the hash function used to generate the code and the resulting codes. Non-cryptographic codes, in some circumstances, are believed to be reversible. The modules only implement hash functions that are considered non-cryptographic, with implementations available in the public domain.
There are a number of algorithms available for the computation of
non-cryptographic 32 and 64-bit hash codes that differ in their
computational complexity,
their relative performance on different size keys, and the
expected uniqueness (randomness) of the resulting hash codes.
Their relative performance in the analysis of text, in particular,
can depend on the compiler, character set, language, and content.
The quality of a hash function is often evaluated using
the SMHasher test suite, originally written by
Austin Appleby, but greatly
extended by Reini Urban.
All except the simplest, FNV_1
and FNV_1A
, of the hash functions
defined in the modules perform well on the tests in Reini Urban's
version of SMHasher.
There are two problems in implementing hash functions in Fortran.
First, the static typing of Fortran makes it awkward to define general
purpose hash functions.
Instead hash functions are defined for some of the more common
objects: character strings and rank-1 arrays of integers.
Other objects can, in principle, be hashed by using transfer
to
map their contents to an integer array, typically one of kind int8
.
The other problem is that hash codes are typically defined using
modular unsigned integer arithmetic.
As such integers are not part of the current Fortran standard,
workarounds have to be used.
These can take two forms.
In one, the operations are emulated by using an integer of a
larger size, or, for the larger integers, by dividing the integer into
two lower and higher order halves,
and performing the operations on each half separately using
the larger integers.
In the second, the unsigned integers may be replaced directly by
the corresponding signed integers, but
otherwise not modifying the code logic.
The first should be standard conforming on current compilers, but
is more computationally intensive unless the compilers recognize
underlying idioms that are rarely used in Fortran codes. The second is
not standard conforming as bit operations involving the sign are
undefined,
but should yield equivalent results with fewer operations on
compilers with two's complement integers that do not trap on over
or under flow. The codes currently use the second method.
In order to compile the hash function modules, the compilers must implement much of Fortran 2003, and selected components of Fortran 2008: submodules, 64-bit integers, and some bit intrinsics. The main limitation on valid compilers is whether they implement the submodules enhancement of Fortran 2008. In order to properly run the hash functions, the compilers must use two's complement integers, and be able to execute them with wraparound semantics and no integer overflow exceptions. Current Fortran 2003+ compilers solely use two's complement integers, and appear to be able to turn off overflow detection, so the modules use signed integer arithmetic. For that reason trapping on signed arithmetic must be disabled. The command line flags to disable overflow detection for compilers implementing submodules are summarized in the table below. Note that FLANG, gfortran (since version 10), ifort, and NAG all default to integer overflow wrapping.
Compiler | Legal flag | Illegal flag | Default |
---|---|---|---|
ARM Fortran | NA? | NA? | overflow wrapping? |
Cray Fortran | NA? | NA? | overflow wrapping? |
FLANG/PGI | -fwrapv | -ftrapv | -fwrapv |
gfortran | -fwrapv | -ftrapv | -fwrapv |
IBM Fortran | NA? | NA? | overflow wrapping? |
ifort | NA? | NA? | overflow wrapping |
NAG Fortran | -C=none | -C=intovf | -C=none |
NEC Fortran | NA? | NA? | overflow wrapping? |
NVIDIA Fortran | NA? | NA? | overflow wrapping? |
All of the modules' hash functions take one or two arguments. All of them have as their first argument the object to be hashed, termed a key. Most have a second argument, termed a seed, that sets the initial value of the hash code changing the hash function behavior. In particular, inputs that hash to the same hash index with a given seed, will often hash to different indexes with a different seed. This difference in behavior makes algorithms that use a seed much more resistant to denial of service attacks that use the properties of a known hash to increase the number of hash table collisions. This additional integer must be kept the same for all hashes in a given hash table, but can be changed and the objects rehashed if collisions are unusually common. The seed can be either a scalar or a two-element array. Some of the hash functions have alternatives that allow incremental hashing.
Algorithm | Seed | Result |
---|---|---|
FNV-1 | None | 32 or 64-bit integer |
FNV-1a | None | 32 or 64-bit integer |
nmhash32 | 32-bit scalar integer | 32-bit integer |
nmhash32x | 32-bit scalar integer | 32-bit integer |
pengyhash | 32-bit scalar integer | 64-bit integer |
Spooky Hash | 64-bit two element vector | 64-bit two element vector |
waterhash | 64-bit scalar integer | 32-bit integer |
The hash function modules each provide at least five algorithms for
hash functions: two optimized for small (< 32 int8
integer elements)
keys, and three optimized for large (> 100 int8
integer elements)
keys.
The core implementation for each algorithm is for keys that are
vectors of int8
integers.
These core implementations are then used in wrappers for keys
that are vectors of int16
, int32
and int64
integers, or default
character strings, in the expectation that inlining will eliminate the
overhead of transferring the other keys to int8
integer vectors.
The stdlib_hash_32bit
module provides
implementations of five hash code algorithms:
the FNV_1 and FNV_1A variants of Glenn Fowler,
Landon Curt Noll, and Kiem-Phong Vo;
the nmhash32 and nmhash32x of James Z. M. Gao;
and the waterhash of Tommy Ettinger.
The detailed implementation of each algorithm is handled in a separate
submodule: stdlib_hash_32bit_fnv
,
stdlib_hash_32bit_nm
, and stdlib_hash_32bit_water
,
respectively. The nmhash32
, nmhash32x
, and waterhash
algorithms
require seeds. The submodules provide separate seed generators
for each algorithm.
The module itself
implements two scalar hash functions, fibonacci_hash
and
universal_mult_hash
.
It also implements the subroutine, odd_random_integer
, for
generating seeds for universal_mult_hash
.
All assume a two's complement sign bit, and no out of
range checks.
The stdlib_hash_64bit
module also provides
implementations of four hash code algorithms:
the FNV_1 and FNV_1A variants of Glenn Fowler,
Landon Curt Noll, and Kiem-Phong Vo;
the pengyhash of Alberto Fajardo;
and the SpookyHash of Bob Jenkins.
The detailed implementation of each algorithm is handled in a separate
submodule: stdlib_hash_64bit_fnv
,
stdlib_hash_64bit_pengy
, and stdlib_hash_64bit_spooky
,
respectively.
The pengyhash
, and Spooky Hash
algorithms
require seeds. The submodules provide separate seed generators
for each algorithm.
The module itself implements two scalar hash functions,
fibonacci_hash
and universal_mult_hash
.
It also implements the subroutine, odd_random_integer
, for
generating seeds for universal_mult_hash
.
All assume a two's complement sign bit, and no out of
range checks.
The stdlib_hash_32bit_fnv
and stdlib_hash_64bit_fnv
submodules each provide implementations of the FNV-1 and FNV-1A
algorithms in the form of two separate overloaded functions: FNV_1
and FNV_1A
.
The FNV-1 and FNV-2 algorithms differ in their order of the
multiplication and exclusive or operations.
They differ from their normal implementation in that they also
encode the structure size in the hash code.
The 32 and 64-bit algorithms differ in their initial offsets and in
their multiplicative constants.
Analysis suggests that FNV_1A
should be better at randomizing the
input, but tests with hash tables show negligible difference.
These algorithms have the reputation of being particularly useful for
small byte strings, i.e., strings of less than 32 bytes.
While they do not at all perform well on the SMHasher test suite,
usage indicates that this has little impact on the
performance of small hash tables, and the small size of the functions
allows their quick loading and retainment in the instruction cache,
giving a performance boost where the hashing is intermittent.
(See the
SMHasher discussion
and S. Richter, V. Alvarez, and J. Dittrich. 2015. A Seven-Dimensional Analysis of Hashing Methods and its Implications on Query Processing, Proceedings of the VLDB Endowment, Vol. 9, No. 3. https://doi.org/10.14778/2850583.2850585.
The stdlib_hash_32bit_nm
submodule provides implementations
of James Z.M. Gao's nmhash32
and nmhash32x
algorithms,
version 0.2,
in the form of the overloaded functions, nmhash32
and nmhash32x
.
The implementations are based on the scalar versions of Gao's
algorithms and not the vector versions that require access to
the vector instructions of some compilers.
Both algorithms perform well on the SMHasher tests, and have no known
bad seeds. The vector versions of both codes perform well on large
keys, with the nmhash32x
faster on short keys. To provide randomly
generated seeds for the two functions the submodule also defines the
subroutines new_nmhash32_seed
and new_nmhash32x_seed
. Gao claims
that nmhash32x
is significantly faster than nmhash32
on short
seeds, but slower on long seeds, but our limited testing so far shows
nmhash32x
to be significantly faster on short seeds and slightly
faster on long seeds.
The stdlib_hash_32bit_water
submodule provides implementations
of Tommy Ettinger's waterhash
algorithm in the form of the overloaded
function, water_hash
. Water Hash has not been tested by Reini Urban,
but Tommy Ettinger has tested it with Urban's SMHasher and presents
results that shows Water Hash passing all the tests. So far his
testing hasn't found any bad seeds for the algorithm. To provide
randomly generated seeds for the hash function the submodule also
defines the subroutine new_water_hash_seed
.
The stdlib_hash_64bit_pengy
submodule provides implementations of
Alberto Fajardo's pengyhash
in the form of the overloaded function,
pengy_hash
. Reini Urban's testing shows that PengyHash passes all
the tests and has no bad seeds. To provide randomly generated seeds
for the hash function the submodule also defines the subroutine
new_pengy_hash_seed
.
The stdlib_hash_64bit_spooky
submodule provides implementations
of Bob Jenkins' SpookyHash in the form of the overloaded function,
spooky_hash
. Future implementations may provide the SpookyHash
incremental hashing procedures.
SpookyHash is optimized for large objects and should give excellent
performance for objects greater than about 96 byes, but has
significant overhead for smaller objects.
The code was designed for little-endian compilers, and will give
different results on big-endian compilers, but the hash quality on
those compilers is probably just as good.
SpookyHash version 2 passes all of Reini Urban's SMHasher tests, and
has one bad seed only when reduced to a 32-bit output.
Its only potential problem is undefined behavior if the key is
misaligned.
stdlib_hash_32bit
moduleThirty two bit hash functions are primarily useful for generating hash
codes and hash indices for hash tables.
They tend to be less useful for generating checksums, which generally
benefit from having a larger number of bits.
The stdlib_hash_32bit
module defines five public overloaded
32-bit hash code functions, FNV_1
, FNV-1A
, nmhash32
, nmhash32x
and water_hash
, two scalar hash functions, fibonacci_hash
and
universal_mult_hash
, four seed generators, odd_random_integer
for
universal_mult_hash
, and new_nmhash32_seed
, new_nmhash32x_seed
,
and new_water_hash_seed
, for their respective hash code
functions. It also defines the integer kind constant, int_hash
, and
a logical constant, little_endian
, used to deal with one aspect of
the machine dependence of the hash codes.
int_hash
parameterIt is necessary to define the kind of integer used to return the hash
code.
As stdlib_hash_32bit
deals exclusively with 32-bit hash codes,
int_hash
is an alias for the integer kind int32
.
little_endian
parameterIn implementing hash functions it is sometimes necessary to know the
"endianess" of the compiler's integers. To this end the
stdlib_hash_32bit
module defines the logical parameter
little_endian
that, if true, indicates that the compiler has
little-endian integers, and that if false indicates that the integers
are big-endian.
stdlib_hash_32bit
proceduresfibonacci_hash
- maps an integer to a smaller number of bitsExperimental
Calculates an nbits
hash code from a 32-bit integer. This is useful
in mapping hash codes into small arrays.
code =
fibonacci_hash ( key, nbits )
Elemental function
key
: Shall be a scalar integer expression of kind int32
. It is an
intent(in)
argument.
nbits
Shall be a scalar default integer expression with 0 < nbits <
32
. It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is an integer of kind int32
with at most the lowest
nbits
nonzero, mapping to a range 0 to nbits-1
.
fibonacci_hash
is an implementation of the Fibonacci Hash of Donald
E. Knuth. It multiplies the key
by the odd valued approximation to
2**32/phi
, where phi
is the golden ratio 1.618..., and returns the
nbits
upper bits of the product as the lowest bits of the result.
program example_fibonacci_hash
use stdlib_hash_32bit, only: fibonacci_hash
use iso_fortran_env, only: int32
implicit none
integer, allocatable :: array1(:)
integer(int32) :: hash, source
allocate (array1(0:2**6 - 1))
array1(:) = 0
source = 42_int32
hash = fibonacci_hash(source, 6)
array1(hash) = source
print *, hash
end program example_fibonacci_hash
fnv_1_hash
- calculates a hash code from a keyExperimental
Calculates a 32-bit hash code from a rank-1 integer array or a default character string.
code =
fnv_1_hash ( key )
Pure/elemental function
key
: Shall be a deferred length default character scalar expression
or a rank-1 integer array expression of kind int8
, int16
,
int32
, or int64
.
It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is a scalar integer of kind int32
.
fnv_1_hash
is an implementation of the original FNV-1 hash code of Glenn
Fowler, Landon Curt Noll, and Phong Vo.
It differs from typical implementations in that it also encodes the
size of the structure in the hash code.
This code is relatively fast on short keys, and is small enough that it
will often be retained in the instruction cache if hashing is
intermittent.
As a result it should give good performance for typical hash table
applications.
This code does not pass any of the SMHasher tests, but the resulting
degradation in performance due to its larger number of collisions is
expected to be minor compared to its faster hashing rate.
It is a pure function for integer arrays, and an elemental
function for character strings.
program example_fnv_1_hash
use stdlib_hash_32bit, only: fnv_1_hash
use iso_fortran_env, only: int32
implicit none
integer(int32) :: hash
hash = fnv_1_hash([5, 4, 3, 1, 10, 4, 9])
print *, hash
end program example_fnv_1_hash
fnv_1a_hash
- calculates a hash code from a keyExperimental
Calculates a 32-bit hash code from a rank-1 integer array or a default character string.
code =
fnv_1a_hash ( key )
Pure/elemental function
key
: Shall be a deferred length default character scalar expression
or a rank-1 integer array expression of kind int8
, int16
,
int32
, or int64
.
It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is a scalar integer of kind int32
.
fnv_1a_hash
is an implementation of the alternative FNV-1a hash code of
Glenn Fowler, Landon Curt Noll, and Phong Vo.
It differs from typical implementations in that it also encodes the
size of the structure in the hash code.
This code is relatively fast on short keys, and is small enough that it
will often be retained in the instruction cache if hashing is
intermittent.
As a result it should give good performance for typical hash table
applications.
This code does not pass any of the SMHasher tests, but the resulting
degradation in performance due to its larger number of collisions is
expected to be minor compared to its faster hashing rate.
It is a pure function for integer arrays, and an elemental
function for character strings.
program example_fnv_1a_hash
use stdlib_hash_32bit, only: fnv_1a_hash
use iso_fortran_env, only: int32
implicit none
integer(int32) :: hash
hash = fnv_1a_hash([5, 4, 3, 1, 10, 4, 9])
print *, hash
end program example_fnv_1a_hash
new_nmhash32_seed
- returns a valid input seed for nmhash32
Experimental
Calculates a 32-bit "random" integer that is believed to be a valid
seed for nmhash32
and is also different from the input seed.
call
new_nmhash32_seed ( seed )
Subroutine
seed
: shall be a defined integer scalar variable of kind int32
.
It is an intent(inout)
argument. On input seed
should be defined,
and on output it will be different from the input seed
.
Currently there are no known bad seeds for nmhash32
, but if any are
identified the procedure will be revised so that they cannot be
returned. This subroutine uses Fortran's intrinsic
random_number
and the values returned can be changed by calling the
intrinsic random_init
.
See the example for nmhash32
.
new_nmhash32x_seed
- returns a valid input seed for nmhash32x
Experimental
Calculates a 32-bit "random" integer that is believed to be a valid
seed for nmhash32x
and is also different from the input seed.
call
new_nmhash32x_seed ( seed )
Subroutine
seed
: shall be a defined integer scalar variable of kind int32
.
It is an intent(inout)
argument. On input seed
should be defined,
and on output it will be different from the input seed
.
Currently there are no known bad seeds for nmhash32x
, but if any are
identified the procedure will be revised so that they cannot be
returned. This subroutine uses Fortran's intrinsic
random_number
and the values returned can be changed by calling the
intrinsic random_init
.
See the example for nmhash32x
.
new_water_hash_seed
- returns a valid input seed for water_hash
Experimental
Calculates a 64-bit "random" integer that is believed to be a valid
seed for water_hash
and is also different from the input seed.
call
new_water_hash_seed ( seed )
Subroutine
seed
: shall be a defined integer scalar variable of kind int64
.
It is an intent(inout)
argument. On input seed
should be defined,
and on output it will be different from the input seed
.
Currently there are no known bad seeds for water_hash
, but if any
are identified the procedure will be revised so that they cannot be
returned. This subroutine uses Fortran's intrinsic
random_number
and the values returned can be changed by calling the
intrinsic random_init
.
See the example for water_hash
.
nmhash32
- calculates a hash code from a key and a seedExperimental
Calculates a 32-bit hash code from a rank-1 integer array or a default
character string, and the input seed
.
code =
nmhash32 ( key, seed )
Pure/elemental function
key
: Shall be a deferred length default character scalar expression
or a rank-1 integer array expression of kind int8
, int16
,
int32
, or int64
.
It is an intent(in)
argument.
seed
: shall be an integer scalar expression of kind int32
.
It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is a scalar integer of kind int32
.
nmhash32
is an implementation of the nmhash32
hash code of
James Z. M. Gao.
This code has good, but not great, performance on long keys, poorer
performance on short keys.
As a result it should give fair performance for typical hash table
applications.
This code passes the SMHasher tests, and has no known bad seeds.
It is a pure function for integer arrays, and an elemental
function for character strings.
program example_nmhash32
use stdlib_hash_32bit, only: nmhash32, &
new_nmhash32_seed
use iso_fortran_env, only: int32
implicit none
integer(int32) :: hash
integer(int32) :: seed = 42_int32
call new_nmhash32_seed(seed)
hash = nmhash32([5, 4, 3, 1, 10, 4, 9], seed)
print *, seed, hash
end program example_nmhash32
nmhash32x
- calculates a hash code from a key and a seedExperimental
Calculates a 32-bit hash code from a rank-1 integer array or a default
character string, and the input seed
.
code =
nmhash32x ( key, seed )
Pure/elemental function
key
: Shall be a deferred length default character scalar expression
or a rank-1 integer array expression of kind int8
, int16
,
int32
, or int64
.
It is an intent(in)
argument.
seed
: shall be an integer scalar expression of kind int32
.
It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is a scalar integer of kind int32
.
nmhash32x
is an implementation of the nmhash32x
hash code of
James Z. M. Gao.
This code has good, but not great, performance on long keys, poorer
performance on short keys.
As a result it should give fair performance for typical hash table
applications.
This code passes the SMHasher tests, and has no known bad seeds.
It is a pure function for integer arrays, and an elemental
function for character strings.
program example_nmhash32x
use stdlib_hash_32bit, only: nmhash32x, &
new_nmhash32x_seed
use iso_fortran_env, only: int32
implicit none
integer(int32) :: hash
integer(int32) :: seed = 42_int32
call new_nmhash32x_seed(seed)
hash = nmhash32x([5, 4, 3, 1, 10, 4, 9], seed)
print *, seed, hash
end program example_nmhash32x
odd_random_integer
- returns an odd integerExperimental
Returns a random 32-bit integer distributed uniformly over the odd values.
call
odd_random_integer ( harvest )
Subroutine
harvest
: Shall be a scalar integer variable of kind int32
. It is
an intent(out)
argument.
odd_random_integer
is intended to generate seeds for
universal_mult_hash
. odd_random_integer
uses Fortran's intrinsic
random_number
and the values returned can be changed by calling the
intrinsic random_init
.
See universal_mult_hash
.
universal_mult_hash
- maps an integer to a smaller number of bitsExperimental
Calculates an nbits
hash code from a 32-bit integer. This is useful
in mapping a hash value to a range 0 to 2**nbits-1
.
code =
universal_mult_hash ( key, seed, nbits )
Elemental function
key
: Shall be a scalar integer expression of kind int32
. It is an
intent(in)
argument.
seed
: Shall be a scalar integer expression of kind int32
. It is an
intent(in)
argument. It must have an odd value.
nbits
Shall be a scalar default integer expression with 0 < nbits <
32
. It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is a scalar integer of kind int32
with at most the lowest
nbits
nonzero.
universal_mult_hash
is an implementation of the Universal
Multiplicative Hash of M. Dietzfelbinger, et al.
It multiplies the key
by seed
, and returns the
nbits
upper bits of the product as the lowest bits of the result.
program example_universal_mult_hash
use stdlib_hash_32bit, only: odd_random_integer, &
universal_mult_hash
use iso_fortran_env, only: int32
implicit none
integer, allocatable :: array1(:)
integer(int32) :: hash, i, seed, source
seed = 0
allocate (array1(0:2**6 - 1))
do i = 0, 2**6 - 1
array1(i) = i
end do
call odd_random_integer(seed)
source = 42_int32
hash = universal_mult_hash(source, seed, 6)
array1(hash) = source
print *, seed, hash, array1
end program example_universal_mult_hash
water_hash
- calculates a hash code from a key and a seedExperimental
Calculates a 32-bit hash code from a rank-1 integer array or a default
character string, and the input seed
.
code =
water_hash ( key, seed )
Pure/elemental function
key
: Shall be a deferred length default character scalar expression
or a rank-1 integer array expression of kind int8
, int16
,
int32
, or int64
.
It is an intent(in)
argument.
seed
: shall be an integer scalar expression of kind int64
.
It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is a scalar integer of kind int32
.
water_hash
is an implementation of the waterhash
hash code of
Tommy Ettinger.
This code has excellent performance on long keys, and good performance
on short keys.
As a result it should give reasonable performance for typical hash
table applications.
This code passes the SMHasher tests.
The waterhash
is based on the wyhash
of Wang Yi.
While wyhash
has a number of bad seeds, where randomization of the
output is poor,
so far testing has not found any bad seeds for waterhash
.
It can have undefined behavior if the key is not word aligned,
i.e. some computer processors can only process a given size integer if
the address of the integer is a multiple of the integer size.
It is a pure function for integer arrays, and an elemental
function for character strings.
program example_water_hash
use stdlib_hash_32bit, only: water_hash, &
new_water_hash_seed
use iso_fortran_env, only: int32, int64
implicit none
integer(int32) :: hash
integer(int64) :: seed = 42_int64
call new_water_hash_seed(seed)
hash = water_hash([5, 4, 3, 1, 10, 4, 9], seed)
print *, hash, seed
end program example_water_hash
stdlib_hash_64bit
moduleSixty-four bit hash functions are generally overkill for hash table
applications, and are primarily useful for check sums and related
applications.
As checksums often have to deal with extremely large files or
directories, it is often useful to use incremental hashing as well as
direct hashing, so 64-bit and higher hash algorithms often provide
multiple implementations. The current module, for simplicity of API,
doesn't provide any incremental hashes.
The stdlib_hash_64bit
module defines several public
overloaded 64-bit hash procedures, FNV_1
, FNV-1A
,
pengy_hash
, and spooky_hash
, two scalar hash functions,
fibonacci_hash
and
universal_mult_hash
, a seed generator, odd_random_integer
, for the
universal_mult_hash
, and two seed generators, new_pengy_hash_seed
and new_spooky_hash_seed
for their respective hash functions. It
also defines the integer kind constant, int_hash
, used to specify
the kind of the hash function results, and a logical constant,
little_endian
, used to deal with one aspect of the machine
dependence of the hash codes.
Note that while SpookyHash can be used as a sixty-four bit hash
algorithm, its algorithms actually returns two element integer arrays
of kind int64
, so it can also be used as a 128 bit hash.
int_hash
parametersIt is necessary to define the kind of integer used to return the hash
code.
As stdlib_haash_64bit
deals exclusively with 64-bit hash codes,
int_hash
is an alias for the integer kind int64
.
little_endian
parameterIn implementing hash functions it is sometimes necessary to know the
"endianess" of the compiler's integers. To this end the
stdlib_hash_64bit
module defines the logical parameter
little_endian
that if true indicates that the compiler has
little-endian integers, and that if false indicates that the integers
are big-endian.
stdlib_hash_64bit
proceduresfibonacci_hash
- maps an integer to a smaller number of bitsExperimental
Calculates an nbits
hash code from a 64-bit integer. This is useful
in mapping hash codes into small arrays.
code =
fibonacci_hash ( key, nbits )
Elemental function
key
: Shall be a scalar integer expression of kind int64
. It is an
intent(in)
argument.
nbits
Shall be a scalar default integer expression with 0 < nbits <
64
. It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is an integer of kind int64
with at most the lowest
nbits
nonzero, mapping to a range 0 to nbits-1
.
fibonacci_hash
is an implementation of the Fibonacci Hash of Donald
E. Knuth. It multiplies the key
by the odd valued approximation to
2**64/phi
, where phi
is the golden ratio 1.618..., and returns the
nbits
upper bits of the product as the lowest bits of the result.
program example_fibonacci_hash_64
use stdlib_hash_64bit, only: fibonacci_hash
use iso_fortran_env, only: int64
implicit none
integer, allocatable :: array1(:)
integer(int64) :: hash, source
allocate (array1(0:2**6 - 1))
array1(:) = 0
source = int(Z'1FFFFFFFF', int64)
hash = fibonacci_hash(source, 6)
array1(hash) = source
print *, hash
end program example_fibonacci_hash_64
FNV_1
- calculates a hash code from a keyExperimental
Calculates a 64-bit hash code from a rank-1 integer array or a default character string.
code =
fnv_1_hash ( key )
Pure/elemental function
key
: Shall be a deferred length default character scalar expression
or a rank-1 integer array expression of kind int8
, int16
,
int32
, or int64
.
It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is a scalar integer of kind int64
.
FNV_1
is an implementation of the original FNV-1 hash code of Glenn
Fowler, Landon Curt Noll, and Phong Vo.
It differs from typical implementations in that it also ecodes the
size of the structure in the hash code.
This code is relatively fast on short keys, and is small enough that it
will often be retained in the instruction cache if hashing is
intermittent.
As a result it should give good performance for typical hash table
applications, although it is rare for them to need 64 bits.
This code does not pass any of the SMHasher tests, but the resulting
degradation in performance due to its larger number of collisions is
expected to be minor compared to its faster hashing rate.
It is a pure function for integer arrays, and an elemental
function for character strings.
program example_fnv_1_hash_64
use stdlib_hash_64bit, only: fnv_1_hash
use iso_fortran_env, only: int64
implicit none
integer, allocatable :: array1(:)
integer(int64) :: hash
array1 = [5, 4, 3, 1, 10, 4, 9]
hash = fnv_1_hash(array1)
print *, hash
end program example_fnv_1_hash_64
FNV_1A
- calculates a hash code from a keyExperimental
Calculates a 64-bit hash code from a rank-1 integer array or a default character string.
code =
fnv_1a_hash ( key )
Pure/elemental function
key
: Shall be a deferred length default character scalar expression
or a rank-1 integer array expression of kind int8
, int16
,
int32
, or int64
.
It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is a scalar integer of kind int32
.
FNV_1A
is an implementation of the alternative FNV-1a hash code of
Glenn Fowler, Landon Curt Noll, and Phong Vo.
It differs from typical implementations in that it also encodes the
size of the structure in the hash code.
This code is relatively fast on short keys, and is small enough that it
will often be retained in the instruction cache if hashing is
intermittent.
As a result it should give good performance for typical hash table
applications.
This code does not pass any of the SMHasher tests, but the resulting
degradation in performance due to its larger number of collisions is
expected to be minor compared to its faster hashing rate.
It is a pure function for integer arrays, and an elemental
function for character strings.
program example_fnv_1a_hash_64
use stdlib_hash_64bit, only: fnv_1a_hash
use iso_fortran_env, only: int64
implicit none
integer, allocatable :: array1(:)
integer(int64) :: hash
array1 = [5, 4, 3, 1, 10, 4, 9]
hash = fnv_1a_hash(array1)
print *, hash
end program example_fnv_1a_hash_64
new_pengy_hash_seed
- returns a valid input seed for pengy_hash
Experimental
Calculates a 32-bit "random" integer that is believed to be a valid
seed for pengy_hash
and is also different from the input seed.
call
new_pengy_hash_seed ( seed )
Subroutine
seed
: shall be a defined integer scalar variable of kind int32
.
It is an intent(inout)
argument. On input seed
should be defined,
and on output it will be different from the input seed
.
Currently there are no known bad seeds for pengy_hash
, but if any are
identified the procedure will be revised so that they cannot be
returned. This subroutine uses Fortran's intrinsic
random_number
and the values returned can be changed by calling the
intrinsic random_init
.
See the example for pengy_hash
.
new_spooky_hash_seed
- returns a valid input seed for spooky_hash
Experimental
Calculates a 32-bit two element vector of "random" integer values that
is believed to be a valid seed for spooky_hash
and is also different
from the input seed.
call
new_spooky_hash_seed ( seed )
Subroutine
seed
: shall be a defined two element integer vector variable of kind
int32
. It is an intent(inout)
argument. On input seed
should be
defined, and on output it will be different from the input seed
.
Currently there are no known bad seeds for spooky_hash
, but if any are
identified the procedure will be revised so that they cannot be
returned. This subroutine uses Fortran's intrinsic
random_number
and the values returned can be changed by calling the
intrinsic random_init
.
See the example for spooky_hash
.
odd_random_integer
- returns odd integerExperimental
Returns a random 64-bit integer distributed uniformly over the odd values.
call
odd_random_integer ( harvest )
Subroutine
harvest
: Shall be an integer of kind int64
. It is an intent(out)
argument.
odd_random_integer
is intended to generate seeds for
universal_mult_hash
. odd_random_integer
uses Fortran's intrinsic
random_number
and the values returned can be changed by calling the
intrinsic random_init
.
See universal_mult_hash
.
pengy_hash
- maps a character string or integer vector to an integerExperimental
Maps a character string or integer vector to a 64-bit integer whose
value also depends on a scalar 32-bit integer, seed
.
code =
pengy_hash ( key, seed )
Pure/elemental function
key
: shall be a scalar expression of type default character or a
rank-1 integer vector expression of kind int8
, int16
, int32
, or
int64
. It is an intent(in)
argument.
seed
: shall be an integer expression of kind int64
. It is
an intent(in)
argument.
The result is an integer of kind int64
.
pengy_hash
is an implementation of the 64-bit pengyhash
of Alberto
Fajardo. The hash has acceptable performance on small keys, and good
performance on long keys. It passes all the SMHasher tests, and has
no known bad seeds.
It is a pure function for integer arrays, and an elemental
function for character strings.
program example_pengy_hash
use stdlib_hash_64bit, only: new_pengy_hash_seed, pengy_hash
use iso_fortran_env, only: int32, int64
implicit none
integer, allocatable :: key(:)
integer(int64) :: hash
integer(int32) :: seed
key = [0, 1, 2, 3]
seed = 0_int32
call new_pengy_hash_seed(seed)
hash = pengy_hash(key, seed)
print *, seed, hash
end program example_pengy_hash
spooky_hash
- maps a character string or integer vector to an integerExperimental
Maps a character string or integer vector to a 64-bit integer whose
value also depends on a two element vector, seed
.
code =
spooky_hash ( key, seed )
Function
key
: shall be a scalar of type default character expression or a
rank-1 integer vector expression of kind int8
, int16
, int32
, or
int64
. It is an intent(in)
argument.
seed
: shall be a two element integer vector expression of kind
int64
. It is an intent(in)
argument.
The result is a two element integer vector of kind int64
.
spooky_hash
is an implementation of the 64-bit version 2 of
SpookyHash of Bob Jenkins. The code was designed for little-endian
compilers. The output is different on big-endian compilers, but still
probably as good quality. It is often used as a 64-bit hash using the
first element of the returned value, but can be used as a 128 bit
hash. This version of spooky_hash
has good performance on small keys
and excellent performance on long keys. It passes all the SMHasher tests
and has no known bad seeds.
program example_spooky_hash
use stdlib_hash_64bit, only: new_spooky_hash_seed, &
spooky_hash
use iso_fortran_env, only: int64
implicit none
integer, allocatable :: key(:)
integer(int64) :: hash(2), seed(2)
key = [0, 1, 2, 3]
seed = [119_int64, 2_int64**41 - 1]
call new_spooky_hash_seed(seed)
hash = spooky_hash(key, seed)
print *, seed, hash
end program example_spooky_hash
universal_mult_hash
- maps an integer to a smaller number of bitsExperimental
Calculates an nbits
hash code from a 64-bit integer. This is useful
in mapping a hash value to a range 0 to 2**nbits-1
.
code =
universal_mult_hash ( key, seed, nbits )
Elemental function
key
: Shall be an integer of kind int64
. It is an intent(in)
argument.
seed
: Shall be an integer of kind int64
. It is an intent(in)
argument. It should be an odd value.
nbits
Shall be a default integer with 0 < nbits < 64
. It is an
intent(in)
argument. It must be an odd integer.
The result is an integer of kind int64
with at most the lowest
nbits
nonzero.
universal_mult_hash
is an implementation of the Universal
Multiplicative Hash of M. Dietzfelbinger, et al.
It multiplies the key
by seed
, and returns the
nbits
upper bits of the product as the lowest bits of the result.
program example_universal_mult_hash_64
use stdlib_hash_64bit, only: odd_random_integer, &
universal_mult_hash
use iso_fortran_env, only: int64
implicit none
integer, allocatable :: array1(:)
integer(int64) :: hash, seed, source
seed = 0
allocate (array1(0:2**6 - 1))
array1 = 0
call odd_random_integer(seed)
source = 42_int64
hash = universal_mult_hash(source, seed, 6)
array1(hash) = source
print *, seed, hash, array1
end program example_universal_mult_hash_64
The Fortran Standard Library provides two categories of test codes. One category is tests of the relative performance of the various hash functions. The other is a comparison of the outputs of the Fortran hash functions, with the outputs of the C and C++ hash procedures that are the inspiration for the Fortran hash functions.
In the test/hash_functions_perf
subdirectory, the Fortran Standard
Library provides two performance test codes for
the hash functions of stdlib_hash_32bit
and
stdlib_hash_64bit
, test_32_bit_hash_performance
and
test_64_bit_hash_performance
respectively. These are primarily set
up to test runtime performance of the functions. They take a sample of
2**18
integers of kind int8
and break it up into vectors of size
1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 64, 256, and 1024 elements, yielding 2**18
,
2**17
, 2**16
, 2**15
, 2**14
, 2**12
, 2**10
, and 2**8
vectors respectively. These are then processed by the hash functions
4 times, and the time for processing is reported. Testing so far has
been on a MacBook Pro with a 2.3 GHz Quad-Core Intel Core i5 and 8 GB
2133 MHz LPDDR3 of RAM, using GNU Fortran (GCC) 11.1.0 to compile the
code. The results for test_32_bit_hash_performance
is given by the
following table:
Algorithm | Key Size Bytes | Key # | Time (s) |
---|---|---|---|
FNV-1 | 1 | 1048576 | 0.02949 |
FNV-1 | 2 | 524288 | 0.02361 |
FNV-1 | 4 | 262144 | 0.02016 |
FNV-1 | 8 | 131072 | 0.01806 |
FNV-1 | 16 | 65536 | 0.01867 |
FNV-1 | 64 | 16384 | 0.01717 |
FNV-1 | 256 | 4096 | 0.01759 |
FNV-1 | 1024 | 1024 | 0.01659 |
FNV-1a | 1 | 1048576 | 0.02897 |
FNV-1a | 2 | 524288 | 0.02472 |
FNV-1a | 4 | 262144 | 0.02025 |
FNV-1a | 8 | 131072 | 0.01901 |
FNV-1a | 16 | 65536 | 0.01898 |
FNV-1a | 64 | 16384 | 0.01784 |
FNV-1a | 256 | 4096 | 0.01723 |
FNV-1a | 1024 | 1024 | 0.01673 |
nmhash32 | 1 | 1048576 | 0.31092 |
nmhash32 | 2 | 524288 | 0.16230 |
nmhash32 | 4 | 262144 | 0.07815 |
nmhash32 | 8 | 131072 | 0.04176 |
nmhash32 | 16 | 65536 | 0.09261 |
nmhash32 | 64 | 16384 | 0.04587 |
nmhash32 | 256 | 4096 | 0.07238 |
nmhash32 | 1024 | 1024 | 0.07263 |
nmhash32x | 1 | 1048576 | 0.04294 |
nmhash32x | 2 | 524288 | 0.02937 |
nmhash32x | 4 | 262144 | 0.01096 |
nmhash32x | 8 | 131072 | 0.00911 |
nmhash32x | 16 | 65536 | 0.01291 |
nmhash32x | 64 | 16384 | 0.00859 |
nmhash32x | 256 | 4096 | 0.07373 |
nmhash32x | 1024 | 1024 | 0.07618 |
water | 1 | 1048576 | 0.12560 |
water | 2 | 524288 | 0.06302 |
water | 4 | 262144 | 0.04020 |
water | 8 | 131072 | 0.01999 |
water | 16 | 65536 | 0.01459 |
water | 64 | 16384 | 0.00923 |
water | 256 | 4096 | 0.00816 |
water | 1024 | 1024 | 0.00792 |
while for test_64_bit_hash_performance
the results are:
Algorithm | Key Size Bytes | Key # | Time (s) |
---|---|---|---|
FNV-1 | 1 | 1048576 | 0.02981 |
FNV-1 | 2 | 524288 | 0.02697 |
FNV-1 | 4 | 262144 | 0.02275 |
FNV-1 | 8 | 131072 | 0.02431 |
FNV-1 | 16 | 65536 | 0.02158 |
FNV-1 | 64 | 16384 | 0.02007 |
FNV-1 | 256 | 4096 | 0.01932 |
FNV-1 | 1024 | 1024 | 0.02089 |
FNV-1a | 1 | 1048576 | 0.03226 |
FNV-1a | 2 | 524288 | 0.03076 |
FNV-1a | 4 | 262144 | 0.02359 |
FNV-1a | 8 | 131072 | 0.02542 |
FNV-1a | 16 | 65536 | 0.02364 |
FNV-1a | 64 | 16384 | 0.02130 |
FNV-1a | 256 | 4096 | 0.01962 |
FNV-1a | 1024 | 1024 | 0.01966 |
Pengy | 1 | 1048576 | 0.24294 |
Pengy | 2 | 524288 | 0.12066 |
Pengy | 4 | 262144 | 0.06205 |
Pengy | 8 | 131072 | 0.03138 |
Pengy | 16 | 65536 | 0.01608 |
Pengy | 64 | 16384 | 0.00669 |
Pengy | 256 | 4096 | 0.00387 |
Pengy | 1024 | 1024 | 0.00295 |
Spooky | 1 | 1048576 | 0.11920 |
Spooky | 2 | 524288 | 0.07478 |
Spooky | 4 | 262144 | 0.03185 |
Spooky | 8 | 131072 | 0.01468 |
Spooky | 16 | 65536 | 0.01503 |
Spooky | 64 | 16384 | 0.00440 |
Spooky | 256 | 4096 | 0.00290 |
Spooky | 1024 | 1024 | 0.00177 |
As the tested function will typically reside in the instruction cache
these results do not include the costs of reloading the procedure if
hashing is intermittent. If hashing is intermittent then that can more
severely impact the performance of nmhash32
, nmhash32x
,
water_hash
, pengy_hash
, and spooky_hash
relative to
fnv_1_hash
and fnv_1a_hash
.
In the test/hash_functions
subdirectory, the Fortran
Standard Library contains codes to test the validity of
the Fortran codes against the original C and C++ codes. It consists of one
executable test_hash_functions
that
1) generates a random sequence of 2048
integers of kind int8
, and stores that sequence in the binary file
key_array.bin
;
2) reads the values in key_array.bin
, and, for each complicated C/C++-coded
hash procedure, generates a corresponding binary file containing 2049 hash
values generated from the values in key_array.bin
., and
3) reads the binary files, and, for each complicated C/C++-coded hash procedure,
compares the contents of the binary file
with the results of calculating hash values using the corresponding
Fortran hash procedure on the same keys.