`corr`

- Pearson correlation of array elementsExperimental

Returns the Pearson correlation of the elements of `array`

along dimension `dim`

if the corresponding element in `mask`

is `true`

.

The Pearson correlation between two rows (or columns), say `x`

and `y`

, of `array`

is defined as:

```
corr(x, y) = cov(x, y) / sqrt( var(x) * var(y))
```

`result = corr(array, dim [, mask])`

`array`

: Shall be a rank-1 or a rank-2 array of type `integer`

, `real`

, or `complex`

.

`dim`

: Shall be a scalar of type `integer`

with a value in the range from 1 to `n`

, where `n`

is the rank of `array`

.

`mask`

(optional): Shall be of type `logical`

and either a scalar or an array of the same shape as `array`

.

If `array`

is of rank 1 and of type `real`

or `complex`

, the result is of type `real`

and has the same kind as `array`

.
If `array`

is of rank 2 and of type `real`

or `complex`

, the result is of the same type and kind as `array`

.
If `array`

is of type `integer`

, the result is of type `real(dp)`

.

If `array`

is of rank 1 and of size larger than 1, a scalar equal to 1 is returned. Otherwise, IEEE `NaN`

is returned.
If `array`

is of rank 2, a rank-2 array with the corresponding correlations is returned.

If `mask`

is specified, the result is the Pearson correlation of all elements of `array`

corresponding to `true`

elements of `mask`

. If every element of `mask`

is `false`

, the result is IEEE `NaN`

.

```
program demo_corr
use stdlib_stats, only: corr
implicit none
real :: x(1:6) = [ 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6. ]
real :: y(1:2, 1:3) = reshape([ -1., 40., -3., 4., 10., 6. ], [ 2, 3])
print *, corr(x, 1) !returns 1.
print *, corr(y, 2) !returns reshape([ 1., -.32480, -.32480, 1. ], [ 2, 3])
end program demo_corr
```

`cov`

- covariance of array elementsExperimental

Returns the covariance of the elements of `array`

along dimension `dim`

if the corresponding element in `mask`

is `true`

.

Per default, the covariance is defined as:

```
cov(array) = 1/(n-1) sum_i (array(i) - mean(array) * (array(i) - mean(array)))
```

where `n`

is the number of elements.

The scaling can be changed with the logical argument `corrected`

. If `corrected`

is `.false.`

, then the sum is scaled with `n`

, otherwise with `n-1`

.

`result = cov(array, dim [, mask [, corrected]])`

`array`

: Shall be a rank-1 or a rank-2 array of type `integer`

, `real`

, or `complex`

.

`dim`

: Shall be a scalar of type `integer`

with a value in the range from 1 to `n`

, where `n`

is the rank of `array`

.

`mask`

(optional): Shall be of type `logical`

and either a scalar or an array of the same shape as `array`

.

`corrected`

(optional): Shall be a scalar of type `logical`

. If `corrected`

is `.true.`

(default value), the sum is scaled with `n-1`

. If `corrected`

is `.false.`

, then the sum is scaled with `n`

.

If `array`

is of rank 1 and of type `real`

or `complex`

, the result is of type `real`

corresponding to the type of `array`

.
If `array`

is of rank 2 and of type `real`

or `complex`

, the result is of the same type as `array`

.
If `array`

is of type `integer`

, the result is of type `real(dp)`

.

If `array`

is of rank 1, a scalar with the covariance (that is the variance) of all elements in `array`

is returned.
If `array`

is of rank 2, a rank-2 array is returned.

If `mask`

is specified, the result is the covariance of all elements of `array`

corresponding to `true`

elements of `mask`

. If every element of `mask`

is `false`

, the result is IEEE `NaN`

.

```
program demo_cov
use stdlib_stats, only: cov
implicit none
real :: x(1:6) = [ 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6. ]
real :: y(1:2, 1:3) = reshape([ 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6. ], [ 2, 3])
print *, cov(x, 1) !returns 3.5
print *, cov(x, 1, corrected = .false.) !returns 2.9167
print *, cov(y, 1) !returns a square matrix of size 3 with all elements equal to 0.5
end program demo_cov
```

`mean`

- mean of array elementsExperimental

Returns the mean of all the elements of `array`

, or of the elements of `array`

along dimension `dim`

if provided, and if the corresponding element in `mask`

is `true`

.

`result = mean(array [, mask])`

`result = mean(array, dim [, mask])`

`array`

: Shall be an array of type `integer`

, `real`

, or `complex`

.

`dim`

: Shall be a scalar of type `integer`

with a value in the range from 1 to `n`

, where `n`

is the rank of `array`

.

`mask`

(optional): Shall be of type `logical`

and either a scalar or an array of the same shape as `array`

.

If `array`

is of type `real`

or `complex`

, the result is of the same type as `array`

.
If `array`

is of type `integer`

, the result is of type `real(dp)`

.

If `dim`

is absent, a scalar with the mean of all elements in `array`

is returned. Otherwise, an array of rank `n-1`

, where `n`

equals the rank of `array`

, and a shape similar to that of `array`

with dimension `dim`

dropped is returned.

If `mask`

is specified, the result is the mean of all elements of `array`

corresponding to `true`

elements of `mask`

. If every element of `mask`

is `false`

, the result is IEEE `NaN`

.

```
program demo_mean
use stdlib_stats, only: mean
implicit none
real :: x(1:6) = [ 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6. ]
real :: y(1:2, 1:3) = reshape([ 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6. ], [ 2, 3])
print *, mean(x) !returns 3.5
print *, mean(y) !returns 3.5
print *, mean(y, 1) !returns [ 1.5, 3.5, 5.5 ]
print *, mean(y, 1,y > 3.) !returns [ NaN, 4.0, 5.5 ]
end program demo_mean
```

`moment`

- central moments of array elementsExperimental

Returns the *k*-th order central moment of all the elements of `array`

, or of the elements of `array`

along dimension `dim`

if provided, and if the corresponding element in `mask`

is `true`

.

If a scalar or an array `center`

is provided, the function returns the *k*-th order moment about 'center', of all the elements of `array`

, or of the elements of `array`

along dimension `dim`

if provided, and if the corresponding element in `mask`

is `true`

.

The *k*-th order central moment is defined as :

```
moment(array) = 1/n sum_i (array(i) - mean(array))^k
```

where `n`

is the number of elements.

The *k*-th order moment about `center`

is defined as :

```
moment(array) = 1/n sum_i (array(i) - center)^k
```

`result = moment(array, order [, center [, mask]])`

`result = moment(array, order, dim [, center [, mask]])`

`array`

: Shall be an array of type `integer`

, `real`

, or `complex`

.

`order`

: Shall be an scalar of type `integer`

.

`dim`

: Shall be a scalar of type `integer`

with a value in the range from 1 to `n`

, where `n`

is the rank of `array`

.

`center`

(optional): Shall be a scalar of the same type of `result`

if `dim`

is not provided. If `dim`

is provided, `center`

shall be a scalar or an array (with a shape similar to that of `array`

with dimension `dim`

dropped) of the same type of `result`

.

`mask`

(optional): Shall be of type `logical`

and either a scalar or an array of the same shape as `array`

.

If `array`

is of type `real`

or `complex`

, the result is of the same type as `array`

.
If `array`

is of type `integer`

, the result is of type `real(dp)`

.

If `dim`

is absent, a scalar with the *k*-th (central) moment of all elements in `array`

is returned. Otherwise, an array of rank `n-1`

, where `n`

equals the rank of `array`

, and a shape similar to that of `array`

with dimension `dim`

dropped is returned.

If `mask`

is specified, the result is the *k*-th (central) moment of all elements of `array`

corresponding to `true`

elements of `mask`

. If every element of `mask`

is `false`

, the result is IEEE `NaN`

.

```
program demo_moment
use stdlib_stats, only: moment
implicit none
real :: x(1:6) = [ 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6. ]
real :: y(1:2, 1:3) = reshape([ 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6. ], [ 2, 3])
print *, moment(x, 2) !returns 2.9167
print *, moment(y, 2) !returns 2.9167
print *, moment(y, 2, 1) !returns [0.25, 0.25, 0.25]
print *, moment(y, 2, 1, mask = (y > 3.)) !returns [NaN, 0., 0.25]
print *, moment(x, 2, center = 0.) !returns 15.1667
print *, moment(y, 1, 1, center = 0.) !returns [1.5, 3.5, 5.5]
end program demo_moment
```

`var`

- variance of array elementsExperimental

Returns the variance of all the elements of `array`

, or of the elements of `array`

along dimension `dim`

if provided, and if the corresponding element in `mask`

is `true`

.

Per default, the variance is defined as the best unbiased estimator and is computed as:

```
var(array) = 1/(n-1) sum_i (array(i) - mean(array))^2
```

where `n`

is the number of elements.

The use of the term `n-1`

for scaling is called Bessel 's correction. The scaling can be changed with the logical argument `corrected`

. If `corrected`

is `.false.`

, then the sum is scaled with `n`

, otherwise with `n-1`

.

`result = var(array [, mask [, corrected]])`

`result = var(array, dim [, mask [, corrected]])`

`array`

: Shall be an array of type `integer`

, `real`

, or `complex`

.

`dim`

: Shall be a scalar of type `integer`

with a value in the range from 1 to `n`

, where `n`

is the rank of `array`

.

`mask`

(optional): Shall be of type `logical`

and either a scalar or an array of the same shape as `array`

.

`corrected`

(optional): Shall be a scalar of type `logical`

. If `corrected`

is `.true.`

(default value), the sum is scaled with `n-1`

. If `corrected`

is `.false.`

, then the sum is scaled with `n`

.

If `array`

is of type `real`

or `complex`

, the result is of type `real`

corresponding to the type of `array`

.
If `array`

is of type `integer`

, the result is of type `real(dp)`

.

If `dim`

is absent, a scalar with the variance of all elements in `array`

is returned. Otherwise, an array of rank `n-1`

, where `n`

equals the rank of `array`

, and a shape similar to that of `array`

with dimension `dim`

dropped is returned.

If `mask`

is specified, the result is the variance of all elements of `array`

corresponding to `true`

elements of `mask`

. If every element of `mask`

is `false`

, the result is IEEE `NaN`

.

If the variance is computed with only one single element, then the result is IEEE `NaN`

if `corrected`

is `.true.`

and is `0.`

if `corrected`

is `.false.`

.

```
program demo_var
use stdlib_stats, only: var
implicit none
real :: x(1:6) = [ 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6. ]
real :: y(1:2, 1:3) = reshape([ 1., 2., 3., 4., 5., 6. ], [ 2, 3])
print *, var(x) !returns 3.5
print *, var(x, corrected = .false.) !returns 2.9167
print *, var(y) !returns 3.5
print *, var(y, 1) !returns [0.5, 0.5, 0.5]
print *, var(y, 1, y > 3.) !returns [NaN, NaN, 0.5]
print *, var(y, 1, y > 3., corrected=.false.) !returns [NaN, 0., 0.25]
end program demo_var
```